By Gernot Friedbacher, Henning Bubert
Surveying and evaluating all concepts proper for sensible functions in floor and skinny movie research, this moment version of a bestseller is a crucial consultant to this sizzling subject in nano- and floor expertise. This new e-book has been revised and up to date and is split into 4 elements - electron, ion, and photon detection, in addition to scanning probe microscopy. New chapters were additional to hide such suggestions as SNOM, FIM, atom probe (AP),and sum frequency new release (SFG). Appendices with a precis and comparability of suggestions and an inventory of apparatus providers make this ebook a swift reference for fabrics scientists, analytical chemists, and people operating within the biotechnological industry.From a overview of the 1st version (edited through Bubert and Jenett)"... an invaluable resource..."(Journal of the yankee Chemical Society)
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Extra info for Surface and Thin Film Analysis
In XPS, for example, typical energy ranges are 250–1500 eV, corresponding to a range of λ from about four to eight monolayers, while in AES, the energy range is typically 20 to 1000 eV, in which case λ would range from about two to six monolayers. What this means in practice is that if the photoelectron or the Auger electron is to escape into a vacuum and be detected, it must originate at or very near the surface of the solid. This is the reason why the electron spectroscopic techniques are surface-speciﬁc.
Scheme describing the orbital motion of an electron around an atomic nucleus, in which the total angular momentum of an electron is found by summing vectorially the individual electron spin and angular momenta. Thus, if l is the electronic angular momentum quantum number and s the electronic spin momentum quantum number, the total angular momentum for each electron is given by j = l + s. Since l can take the values 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, … and s = ± 21 , clearly j = 21 , 23 , 25 , etc. The principal quantum number n can take values 1, 2, 3, 4, … .
Hydrogen and helium cannot be detected due to the low cross-section of interaction. Although XPS is concerned principally with photoelectrons and their kinetic energies, the ejection of electrons by other processes also occurs. An ejected photoelectron leaves behind a core hole in the atom. 1. In the example, the hole has been created in the K shell, giving rise to a photoelectron whose kinetic energy would be (hν − EK). 1, left). The energy EK − EL1 associated with the transition can then either be dissipated as a characteristic X-ray photon or given up to an electron in the same or a higher shell, in this example the L23 shell.
Surface and Thin Film Analysis by Gernot Friedbacher, Henning Bubert