By Henny Klein
Adverbs of measure shape an fascinating a part of the lexicon: quite a few, multiform and everchanging. additionally they exhibit an exceptional kind in distribution. during this examine, the features of adverbs of measure are investigated from a semantic standpoint. the main target is on Dutch, yet prior reports approximately English and German adverbs of measure are used to check with and to construct on.
The e-book begins with an advent on grading and gradability, and a type of the adverbs in accordance with the measure they exhibit. subsequent, the several lexical assets from which the adverbs emerge and the method of grammaticalization are mentioned. the most a part of the booklet is dedicated to semantic regulations at the use of adverbs of measure, at the one hand regulations about the converted parts, nevertheless these about the surroundings. themes comprise absoluteness as opposed to gradability, optimistic as opposed to detrimental assessment, the strengthening of negation, polarity sensitivity, the logical houses of the adverbs themselves, and regulations to reduplication and stacking.
Besides the most textual content, 3 case reviews are offered within which the pecularities of a few of the adverbs are investigated intensive, to teach extra intimately to complexities in their distribution. The appendix provides an summary of Dutch adverbs of measure.
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Extra info for Adverbs of Degree in Dutch and Related Languages
We see that absoluut 'absolutely', beslist 'decidedly, positively' and echt 'really' can be used in some of the frames, but werkelijk 'really' and inderdaad 'indeed' cannot. Furthermore, we see differences in the elements that can be modified. Modal adverbs modify statements with arbitrary constituents (48). (48) a. Ze is 'She is b. Het is 'It is echt/ absoluut/ beslist really/ absolutely/ positively echt/ absoluut/ beslist really/ absolutely/ positively aardig nice' noodzakelijk necessary' 48 CHAPTER 2 However, as demonstrated in table 5, as a degree modifier absoluut and beslist modify only absolute expressions, whereas echt prefers gradable expressions.
He concentrates on the lexical meaning of the individual adverbs, and discerns no less than 37 subclasses, according to their Motivationssemem (a term he uses to indicate the field of their mean ing). For example, the Motivationssemem of außergewöhnlich 'extraordi nary' is "outside of a certain norm" or, for short, "outside norm" and that of unglaublich 'unbelievably' is "not conceivable with the senses" or, for short, "unspeakable" (1969: 98). About the last example we may already hesitate: the step from inconceivable to unspeakable seems a rather big one.
In (2), the quantifying function of weinig and veel is demonstrated. Besides nouns (2a), comparatives and comparative-like expressions are modified by quantitative expressions (2b,c). In (2c), the quasinegative weinig is excluded, because te 'too' indicates that the degree of the quality exceeds the degree that is needed or permitted. In (3), both weinig and veel function as adverbs of frequency. In (4), weinig fulfils a grading function, and veel is excluded. Before a degree NP, however, weinig is less common (4a), and with verbs, as in (4b), a frequency interpretation is often not excluded.
Adverbs of Degree in Dutch and Related Languages by Henny Klein