By Pauline Fairclough
Composed in 1935-36 and meant to be his inventive 'credo', Shostakovich's "Fourth Symphony" was once now not played publicly until eventually 1961. the following, Dr Pauline Fairclough tackles head-on probably the most major and least understood of Shostakovich's significant works. She argues that the "Fourth Symphony" was once noticeably diverse from its Soviet contemporaries by way of its constitution, dramaturgy, tone or even language, and hence challenged the norms of Soviet symphonism at a very important degree of its improvement. With the backing of trendy musicologists equivalent to Ivan Sollertinsky, the composer may perhaps realistically have anticipated the ultimate to have taken position, and should also have meant the symphony to be a version for a brand new form of 'democratic' Soviet symphonism. Fairclough meticulously examines the ranking to notify a dialogue of tonal and thematic approaches, allusion, paraphrase and connection with musical forms, or intonations. Such research is determined deeply within the context of Soviet musical tradition throughout the interval 1932-36, related to Shostakovich's contemporaries Shabalin, Myaskovsky, Kabalevsky and Popov. a brand new approach to research is usually complex the following, the place a number Soviet and Western analytical equipment are expert via the theoretical paintings of Shostakovich's contemporaries Viktor Shklovsky, Boris Tomashevsky, Mikhail Bakhtin and Ivan Sollertinsky, including Theodor Adorno's overdue learn of Mahler. during this manner, the publication will considerably bring up an knowing of the symphony and its context.
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Additional info for A Soviet Credo: Shostakovich's Fourth Symphony
Note on Sources The original 1962 Sovetskiy Kompozitor score is the one reprinted by most music publishers , including the Sikorski edition that I have used as my main source. The 1982 Muzika collected works score was based on the revised 1976 Sovetskiy Kompozitor edition, as is the new collected works edition (vol. 4, DSCH, Moscow: 2003) . A list of significant differences between the two-piano version of the score (first published by Muzfond USSR, Moscow, 1946 and now re-published as volume 19 of the new collected works (DSCH, Moscow: 2000)) , the 1 962 and 1976 Sovetskiy Kompozitor scores and the 1982 Muzika score is given by the archivist of the Shostakovich Family Archive in Moscow and editor of the new collected works , Manashir Yakubov, in the Commentary to the Fourth Symphony, pp.
Bronfin, ' Sollertinskiy - muzikal 'nly uchenly' [Sollertinskiy music scholar] in Lyudmila Mikheyeva, Pamyati I J. I. Sollertinskiy: reminiscences , materials , works] , Leningrad: Sovetskiy Kompozitor, 1 974, 70 . 5 2 I am thinking here of analyses of major 20th-century symphonies such as James Hepokoski , Sibelius: Sympho1zy No. 5, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 1 993 , David Fanning , Nielsen: Symphony No. 5, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 1 997 , and Fanning , The Breath of the Symphonist: Shostakovich 's Tenth, London: Royal Musical Association, 1 98 8 .
Utopianism' and 'pessimism' had extremely negative connotations in Soviet critical discourse of this period. The building of socialism could hardly be openly described as a 'utopian' project; all commentators were aware that their attitude to this event ought to be one of certainty rather than hope. 'Pessimism' was outlawed for the same reason. Sollertinsky's vague list of approved Mahlerian qualities speaks for itself. Having trumpeted Mahler's employment of urban popular idioms in the previous chapters, it is noteworthy that he omits to mention it in his conclusion.
A Soviet Credo: Shostakovich's Fourth Symphony by Pauline Fairclough